Wednesday, April 5 2017

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The heliosphere, the extended atmosphere of the Sun, is a bubble of electromagnetic and mostly ionized gas that extends to more than 100 AU from the solar surface. This material is in a plasma state with infrequent particle collisions, so that particles do not see each other, but interact through the intermediary of the electromagnetic field. The dynamics of collisionless plasma is a subject still being explored by observation, theory and numerical simulations. This dynamics is inherently nonlinear with couplings extending across large ranges of space and time scales.