Thermoelectric materials are important for spacecraft power, waste heat recovery, thermal management and cooling applications. Here I discuss the basic physics of thermoelectric effects and approaches for discovering new thermoelectric materials. A key issue is the contraindication of high thermoelectric performance, which places thermoelectrics into an interesting group of materials that includes transparent conductors, magnetic semiconductors and multiferroics. The efficiency of thermoelectric systems is limited by materials performance.
Quantification of changes in the macromolecular constituents of tissue is a major theme in biomedical magnetic resonance (MR). In many cases, constituents can only be distinguished through their differing water transverse relaxation times, instead of by frequency differences as is more familiar in MR spectroscopy. However, this requires implementation of multiexponential transverse relaxation analysis (METRA), a special case of the inverse Laplace transform, a notoriously ill-posed and unstable inverse problem.