PIRA Code(s): 3A10.20 Set up time:1 minute Operation: Move the weight along the hacksaw blade. Pull back on the blade and release. When the weight is at the top of the blade the frequency is smaller compared to when the weight is at the bottom. Physics and Science Concepts: Oscillations Safety: Edge of blade may be sharp.
PIRA Code(s): 3A10.40 Set up time:none Operation: Push the pendulum so that it swings back and forth at an angle of about 0 º. Then, slowly increase the angle, and watch the frequency decrease. For a more effective demonstration, start the pendulum at a relatively high angle, and then decrease the angle of the plane of oscillation so that the frequency of the pendulum will increase over time. Physics and Science Concepts: Oscillations Safety: None
PIRA Code(s): 3A20.80 Set up time:1 minute Operation: Shake the cup to send large waves down the spring and create sounds similar to whale songs or star trek laser blasts. Speak into the cup and the spring will create an echoing effect. Physics and Science Concepts: Oscillations and Waves Safety: Do not hyperextend slinky.
PIRA Code(s): 3B20.11 Set up time:2 minutes Operation: Lay the slinky down on the ground and push it back and forth lengthwise to make longitudinal waves. Physics and Science Concepts: Longitudinal Waves Safety: Ends of slinky may be sharp or may tangle.
PIRA Code(s): 3B30.30 Set up time:10 minutes (5 minutes to pump the bell jar) Operation: Plug in the pump and attach the clear tube of the pump to the valve. Turn the switch on the power supply to ascertain that the alarm is working properly. Then, pump out the air inside the bell jar. It will take about 5 minutes to obtain a low enough air pressure so that the alarm will not sound. Turn the alarm on and slowly open the valve, allowing the air pressure in the bell jar to increase. The sound of the alarm will also gradually increase. Physics and Science Concepts: Sound waves Safety: A glass jar containing a vacuum can be extremely hazardous if broken.
PIRA Code(s): 3D32.15 Set up time:No setup required. Operation: First, slide blow into the mouthpiece located at the top of the whistle. Next, move the piston to create different frequencies. If you have trouble moving the piston and blowing into the whistle simultaneously, have another person work the piston. Physics and Science Concepts: Waves, Oscillations, Frequency, Pitch Safety: Do not blow too hard or for extended periods of time as this may cause dizziness or headaches. Clean the mouthpiece in between use.
PIRA Code(s): 3D46.16 Set up time:no setup required Operation: Place the boxes with open cavities facing, one box length apart. Strike the first tuning fork with the striker. Stop the vibrations with your hand. Listen closely for the sound coming from the second fork. Physics and Science Concepts: Waves and Oscillations Safety: None
PIRA Code(s): 5A20.20 Set up time:1 minute Operation: Charge the rod by rubbing it the through the cloth provide or on your shirt. Hold the rod near a pith ball. The two balls will repel each other. The PVC gives a positive charge and the acrylic rod gives negative charge. Physics and Science Concepts: Electrostatics, Coulomb’s Law Safety: None
PIRA Code(s): 5A22.22 Set up time:3 minutes Operation: First, show the electroscope in resting stage. Then, charge a rod or other material by rubbing the object in a cloth. Place this near the plate of the electroscope and observe the deflection of the needle. To keep the needle deflected, scrape the plate with the charged object. A decrease in deflection occurs when an oppositely charged object is placed near the plate. Physics and Science Concepts: Electrostatics Safety: None
PIRA Code(s): 5A50.10 Set up time:2 minutes Operation: Place the four (two large, two small) balls on the poles in the front about 1 inch apart. Turn the crank. Physics and Science Concepts: Electrostatics Safety: Do not touch any metal portions of the generator
PIRA Code(s): 5A50.30 Set up time:10 minutes Operation: Plug in the generator. Turn on the rocker switch and adjust speed using potentiometer on the base of the Van de Graaff.
Other suggested uses include combining this with other electrostatic demonstrations found under a 5A50 heading. Also, throwing packing peanuts or taping strips of paper to the Van de Graaff are popular demonstrations. Physics and Science Concepts: Static Electricity, Friction Safety: The rod works best on dry days with the blue wig. Care should be taken when operating. Do not approach the generator while it is running. Use the grounding rod to discharge.
PIRA Code(s): 5B30.20 Set up time:5 minutes Operation: Use the Van der Graaf or Wimshurst generator to charge the ovoid. Touch a proof plane to the pointed end of the ovoid and another to the spherical end. Place the proof planes on the electroscope plate. The deflection will be greater from the proof plane that touched the pointed end. Physics and Science Concepts: Electrostatics, Surface Charge Density Safety: Electroscope can be obtained from demonstration number 5A22.22.
PIRA Code(s): 5C10.20 Set up time:none Operation: Charge the plates using the Van de Graaff. Disconnect wire going from top of sphere to fixed plate at plate end. Change the spacing of a charged parallel plate capacitor while it is attached to an electroscope. Observe changes in electroscope pointer. Physics and Science Concepts: Capacitance Safety: Electroscope can be obtained from demo 5A22.22. The Van de Graaff can be obtained from demo 5A50.30.
PIRA Code(s): 5C30.40 Set up time:5 minutes Operation: Jars can be charged with either the Wimshurst generator (5A50.10) or Van de Graaf generator (5A50.30). Charge Leyden jars in parallel and discharge, charge in parallel again and connect in series before discharging. The intensity of the sparks as well as their duration is much greater for the series connection. Physics and Science Concepts: Electricity and Magnetism, Capacitance Safety: Do not touch the charged capacitor. Make sure the jar is discharged before storing or touching.
PIRA Code(s): 5E40.20 Set up time:1 minute Operation: Pour sulfuric acid into the glass container. Wait 5 minutes for the reaction to take place between the dissimilar metals. Place the voltmeter on the overhead and display the voltage generated in the cell. Physics and Science Concepts: Electromotive Force and Current Safety: Be careful around acid. Gloves and goggles should be worn when handling acid.
PIRA Code(s): 5F20.50 Set up time:5 minutes Operation: First, attach the metal rods to the battery by unscrewing the black caps and place the rods around the screws. Then replace the caps. Next, clip one light bulb on the metal rods to show a circuit with a single light bulb. To show series circuits, clip two bulbs together and place the end of each clip on opposite rods. To show parallel circuits, clip each bulb separately to the rods. The bulbs in series will glow less brightly than the bulbs in parallel. Physics and Science Concepts: Parallel and series circuits Safety: The ends of the rods pose an eye hazard.
PIRA Code(s): 5G50.50 Set up time:2 minutes Operation: A superconductor disc is placed in a styrofoam dish and liquid nitrogen is added to the dish. A small magnet is placed on top and within a few seconds it begins to levitate. Physics and Science Concepts: Superconductivity, Magnetic Materials Safety: Liquid Nitrogen can be obtained from the machine shop.
PIRA Code(s): 5H10.30 Set up time:3 minutes Operation: Place the magnet under the piece of paper and on the overhead. Sprinkle iron filings over the magnet and the filings should align with the magnetic field. Physics and Science Concepts: Magnetic Fields and Forces Safety: An overhead can be obtained from demonstration 9A36.10.
PIRA Code(s): 5H30.10 Set up time:2 minutes Operation: Plug in the cathode ray tube. Deflect the beam of the CRT by holding a permanent magnet near the edge of the tube. If the beam disappears, you are holding the magnet too close. Also, you can deflect the beam by attaching a battery to the binding posts and adjusting the variable control knob. Physics and Science Concepts: Magnetic Fields and Forces Safety: None
PIRA Code(s): 5K10.20 Set up time:1 minute Operation: Hook the leads from the galvanometer to the induction coil. Place a magnet in front of the coil. Turn the crank and the needle on the galvanometer should move. The connection between the galvanometer and the loop changes polarity every half turn. Physics and Science Concepts: Electromagnetic Induction, Electricity and Magnetism Safety: Magnet is extremely strong so do not place metal objects near it.
PIRA Code(s): 5K20.10 Set up time:5 minutes Operation: Set up the pole with the right angle clamp and pendulum. Place the permanent magnet so that the copper sheet is in between the two magnet sides. Swing the full copper sheet swing through the magnet. Watch as it damps out quickly. The, flip the pendulum so that the copper comb side is swinging through the magnet. Watch how it swings as if the magnet is not even there. Physics and Science Concepts: Electromagnetic Induction, Eddy Currents Safety: Stand to the side of the pendulum as it swings, not directly in the path.
PIRA Code(s): 5K20.30 Set up time:2 minutes Operation: Set up the apparatus so that the silver pole sticks above the platform a few inches. Place a full ring around the tube and turn the apparatus on. This will make the ring jump into the air. Turn off the machine then, place the split ring around the pole, turn on the machine and this will not do anything. Resistive heating can be demonstrated by holding the full rings down and feeling them heat up. Next, turn off the machine, place the copper coil around the pole and press down on the copper rod sticking off the coil to create sparks. Also, place the light bulb circuit ring against the flat top part of the pole and watch it light up. Physics and Science Concepts: Lenz law, Electromagnetic Induction, Eddy Currents Safety: Do not place apparatus directly under a light. Do not stand above machine when the rings jump. Do not hold the full ring down too long, you may get burned.
PIRA Code(s): 5L20.14 Set up time:1 minute Operation: Plug in the circuit. Flip the switch that says line and then put the lever to the automatic side for the whole lamp to light up. Flip the line switch again and move the lever to the middle. Put the line switch on again and move the lever to the manual side. This will heat up the filament. Then move the lever a little away from the manual side for the entire light to be lit. Physics and Science Concepts: AC Circuits Safety: None
PIRA Code(s): 9C40.67 Set up time:none Operation: Scintillators can be used as a part of an experiment or by themselves to detect energetic particles from a radioactive source or from the background. Physics and Science Concepts: Optics Safety: Must have appropriate radiation health training prior to requiring sources. See the University of Delaware’s OSHA website.